TYPOS: THE TYPOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW, by Leonhard Goppelt, translated by Donald H. Madvig; Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1982; 264 pages, $15.95 (cloth). (Reviewed by Prof. R.D. Decker)

This book deals with the subject or discipline of Typology which is a branch of Hermeneutics. The book was originally Dr. Goppelt’s doctoral dissertation presented to the faculty at Erlangen in 1939. It was reprinted with some additions in 1969. This 1969 edition was translated from the German by D.H. Madvig. 

Anyone involved in the study of Typology will want to study this volume. In addition to valuable insights into the way the Old Testament is interpreted by the New Testament, the book offers a rather good survey of what has been and now is being written in this field. In the introduction Goppelt presents the various definitions which have been given to Typology. The three main sections of the book are: Typology in Late Judaism, Typology in the New Testament, and Apocalypticism and Typology in Paul. 

The book is highly technical and scholarly study. For this reason its best use will be made by theological students, professors, and ministers. For one who has no formal training in the original languages of Scripture and in Hermeneutics and Typology the book is too difficult. 

Leonhard Goppelt was professor of New Testament at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich until his death in 1973. He is the author of the two-volumeTheology of the New Testament, also an Eerdmans publication.

MY HEAD IS BLOODY BUT UNBOWED, by Matsu Crawford; REF Typesetting & Publishing, Inc., 1983; 111 pp., $5.00 ($1.00 for shipping), (paper). (Reviewed by Prof. H. Hanko)

The blurb on the back cover of this book reads:

My Head is Bloody But Unbowed tells what went on for years in every avenue of our American life. Recent happenings in church assemblies, in the educational process and in politics tell us where we are headed. 

So many church men (and other Americans) slept while the tidal wave of the New Revolution swept over them; they neither agreed nor disagreed; they simply dozed. 

It is time to wake up, America, and live!

The author of this book was a member of the Southern Presbyterian Church in which she served as missionary, and in which her husband served as pastor. In the course of her work, she discovered that the Church was, knowingly or unknowingly, being influenced by Communist propaganda, especially that propaganda which originated in the Ecumenical Institute, which had its headquarters in Chicago. She relates how she attempted to expose this influence, but without success, until the direction of the denomination was, in great measure, determined by those who wanted to destroy the foundations of this country. 

The book has as its purpose, at least in part, to explain one of the reasons why the Presbyterian Church in America was formed when a large segment of the Church separated from the old-line Presbyterian Church. But the book has also for its purpose to warn existing denominations of the danger of subtle communist influence which can destroy mainline denominations and so undermine the basic institutions of this country.

A PRIMER ON JUSTIFICATION, by John H. Gerstner; Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1983; 26 pp., $1.50 (paper). (Reviewed by Prof. H. Hanko)

John Gerstner has written an extremely and helpful pamphlet on what he calls, “the hinge of the Reformation,” and “the core of the gospel.” Although it is a relatively small pamphlet, it contains in it the essential truth of justification by faith alone. He does this by way of treating five different views of justification and the relation between this work of God and both faith and good works. The five views which are treated are: 1) Liberalism, 2) Neo-orthodoxy, 3)Antinomianism, 4) Roman Catholicism, and, 5) the Biblical view. Each section is begun with a small diagram which defines the position which each of the above views takes. 

The pamphlet is very clearly and interestingly written and will be helpful to anyone who wishes to understand this important doctrine. It is well worth the modest price. 

If there is one weakness in the book, it is this: Gerstner is so intent of explaining what each of the above positions teaches concerning the relation between justification and both faith and works that he does not take the time to set forth carefully what justification itself means. This idea is not altogether lacking, but it is somewhat incidental to the main purpose of the book. An improvement would have been an introductory chapter in which this truth of justification is concisely and clearly set forth.

One more remark: one wonders why Gerstner brought into the book, admittedly in an aside, the idea of the free offer when it does not really belong to the general purpose of the book.