All Articles For Marking the Bulwarks of Zion

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: November 1, 2005, p. 69. Introduction  While revivals were relatively common in the British Isles prior to about one hundred years ago, America can boast of only two major revivals. The first, called “The Great Awakening,” took place in New England during the ministry of Jonathan Edwards and by means of the preaching of George Whitefield. The second, called “The Second Great Awakening,” was sparked by Charles Grandison Finney and took place chiefly in Ohio, western New York, and...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary.   Introduction Among the churches in some parts of Europe, particularly in the British Isles, revivalism is a popular conception. Churches who, while once strong and vibrant, have become lethargic and small look to revival for deliverance from their present woes. Spiritually weak churches think that revival will be the solution to all their problems, and many prayers are made for this special outpouring of the Holy Spirit. While such countries as the British Isles, perhaps especially Wales and Northern Ireland, have been noted...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: July 2007, p. 419. As I noted earlier, the Federal Vision has its roots in the heresy of a conditional covenant. It emphasizes that it is a doctrine that has to do with the covenant, has its roots in covenant theology not only, but defines the nature and essence of the covenant. No matter what view of the covenant one may take, the doctrine of the covenant has to do with the doctrine of salvation. If the covenant is...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction The church of the new dispensation, in its struggles to defend the truth of God’s Word, has had to defend one doctrine above all others, for it is the one doctrine that, more than any other, is subject to the unrelenting attacks of wicked men under the direction of Satan. This one truth is the doctrine of the absolute sovereignty of God, particularly in the work of salvation. The truth of sovereign and particular grace was attacked by Pelagius and defended by Augustine....

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: April 1, 2007, p. 306. Introduction Prof. William Heyns developed a doctrine of the covenant that is held widely in Reformed circles at the present time. This view is a kind of adaptation of the doctrine of common grace and the well-meant offer of the gospel to the sacrament of baptism and the promises of God made at baptism. It was Heyns’ contention that all children of believers are objectively in the covenant, possess objectively the promises of the...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: March 1, 2007, p. 249. Introduction  The doctrine of the covenant in post-Reformation thought never quite got off on the right foot. From the beginning of its development in Switzerland, by Zwingli and Bullinger in their battle against the Anabaptists, the covenant was defined in terms of a compact or agreement between God and man. This serious misunderstanding of the covenant, in connection with the emerging doctrine of the federal headship of Adam in his relation to the human...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction Our concluding study of heresies that have appeared in the history of the church of Christ is a brief survey of more modern heresies that are present in the church in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The task of choosing which ought to be included in these articles is not an easy one, and the choices we have made are, admittedly, somewhat arbitrary. The difficulties are especially two. The first is that heresies are without number in post-Reformation times. If we were to...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: January 1, 2007, p. 155. Introduction  Common grace has two parts to it. One part has to do with God’s favorable attitude towards all men, expressed particularly in the gracious offer of the gospel to all. The other part has to do with God’s grace, worked by the Holy Spirit, in the hearts of all men, which restrains sin and enables man to do good. This idea of grace was first proposed by Dr. Abraham Kuyper in a massive...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary.   Introduction  The controversy over common grace is of particular interest to the Protestant Reformed Churches, for it was the immediate occasion for the existence of these churches as a separate denomination. The founders of these churches, under God, were expelled from the Christian Reformed Church for refusing to agree with common grace as a doctrine taught in Scripture and the confessions. These leaders, Revs. Herman Hoeksema, George Ophoff, and Henry Danhof, refused to preach and teach it in their congregations as was required...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: November 1, 2006, p. 62.   The Teachings of Pentecostalism The very core of Pentecostal religion is the doctrine of the second blessing, or, as it is sometimes called, the baptism with the Holy Spirit. When most people think of Pentecostalism, they think of long lines of people waiting to be healed, of tongue-speaking, of singing with rhythm and clapping of hands, and of rather disorderly meetings with a lot of shouting, many “Praise the Lords,” and even rolling...

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