All Articles For Marking the Bulwarks of Zion

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction In the last article we left Innocent III, the greatest of all popes before or since, occupying the papal chair in Rome. In this article our attention is going to be concentrated on Innocent’s theory of the papacy, his achievements, and his efforts to make the power of the papacy supreme in Europe—efforts in which he was altogether too successful. It seems to me that any effort to judge Innocent’s role in history is going to have to take into account the fact...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: May 1, 2006, p. 354. Introduction Proceeding from a fundamental premise that the Bible is, at least in part, a human document, higher criticism has come up with many strange ways in which to explain Scripture. I am sometimes amazed at the fertility of human imagination, which can invent so many theories to deny that Scripture is the Word of God. It makes one wonder, when one discovers the literally hundreds of books that have been written on this...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary.   Introduction  Although many reasons can be found why heresies arise in the church of Christ, one important reason for modern heresies is what has been called “higher criticism.” Higher criticism ostensibly inquires into the origin of the sacred Scriptures; that is, it asks the question: How did the Bible come into existence? Although many answers have been given to this question by higher critics, they all come down to one point: Scripture is not, partially or in its entirety, the Word of God....

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in ths series: February 1, 2006, p. 208.   Introduction  Walter Rauschenbusch is usually considered the father of the modern social gospel. Born in Germany into a Lutheran family with strong pietistic Lutheran influences, he became a Baptist when his family immigrated to America and joined the Baptist Church. Early in his college career, influenced especially by the liberal Horace Bushnell, he was moved to ever greater distances from his relatively orthodox roots in the direction of a newer and more modern...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: March 15, 2006, p. 282.   Introduction  Charles Finney’s work can be criticized for many reasons. He was thoroughly Pelagian in his theology, not because he was ignorant of the Reformed faith, but because, although he had been taught it as a youth and young man, he had deliberately abandoned it. He was a sort of self-appointed evangelist and an itinerant preacher who pretty much “did his own thing,” without being responsible or accountable to anyone but himself. He...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: December 1, 2005, p. 116.   Introduction  Charles Finney is usually considered to be the father of the Second Great Awakening. He became a minister in the Presbyterian Church in the US without attending any seminary and with only an incomplete college education. He remained a minister in the Presbyterian Church until the time he became professor of theology in Oberlin Institute in Ohio. Just before he moved to Oberlin he resigned from the Presbyterian Church and established a...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction Not all heresies in the history of the church of Christ involve matters of doctrine. Sometimes the heresies which appeared are matters of church government and the corporate worship of God in the church. In a way, of course, these heresies are also corruptions of the truth. A corruption of church government, for example, is a denial of the truth of the Kingship of Christ over the church. An aberration in worship involves the doctrine of the nature of God and the obligation...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Abelard’s Doctrine of the Atonement As I said earlier, the real is-sue in the controversy over the atonement of our Lord Jesus Christ was concerning the necessity of the atonement. It seems that actually the controversy involved the relation between some of God’s attributes and the suffering and death of Christ. For example, the question was asked: If God is omnipotent, could He not simply save men by His power without having to send His Son to the suffering of the cross? Or, if...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary.   Introduction Outside of fundamentalist Christianity, the social gospel has come to dominate the thinking of the church. Characteristic of the social gospel is the idea that the work of the church can best be described as a concentrated effort to make this world in which we now live a better place, so that the kingdom of God can be realized here on earth. If the church fails to work towards the alleviation of the sufferings of the poor, the oppression of the downtrodden,...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction It is a bit difficult to make choices concerning the indi-vidual about whom to write when many others taught the same heresy as we wish to describe in this article. The heresy has to do with our Lord’s atoning work on the cross. The choice of the story of Abelard is, therefore, somewhat arbitrary. Yet, there are certain reasons why I have chosen to write about Abelard and not others who held to the same heresy concerning the atonement as this man. The first...

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