All Articles For Marking the Bulwarks of Zion

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. The Beginnings of the Conflict Pelagius moved to Rome about 400, the year Augustine finished his Confessions. It was probably in Rome that Celestius was converted by Pelagius and became his disciple and friend. Although Pelagius, for nearly ten years, openly preached his views in Rome, he never got into any trouble with the church or the theologians there. In 411 both were in North Africa, where Augustine was already bishop of Hippo. The date they went to North Africa is hard to determine. Probably...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction The attack against the doctrines of sovereign grace which had been made by Pelagius and his disciple Celestius were answered by the great bishop of Hippo, Augustine. But Augustine was only one individual in the church. He was its greatest thinker; he was its soundest theologian; he towered over his age like a colossus. But what he believed and taught, while influential in the lives of many others, could not become official church dogma until the church adopted his position. Would the church do...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Arminius’ Views   Arminius died at the age of 46. But his teachings lived on in the preaching of his former students, and his heretical views were disseminated throughout the churches. As far as his views are concerned, Arminius made the doctrine of predestination the object of his attack. He taught that God ordained Christ to be the Mediator and, having done this, God determined to accept in Christ all penitent and believing sinners, and to condemn all impenitent and unbelieving sinners who remained...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction   In writing on the subject of the life and teachings of Arminius, we turn to a heresy with which most, if not all, the readers of the Standard Bearer are familiar. The Arminian controversy took place in what is the fatherland of many of us; and the glorious triumph of Dordt is part of our own heritage as Reformed churches. The Protestant Reformed Churches are by no means the only denomination that traces its spiritual lineage to the Synod of Dordt and...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction   The Reformation in general, and John Calvin in particular, had to wage war not only against Rome and the errors of Rome that had plagued the church of Christ for centuries; it had also to wage war against many who left the Romish Church to join the Reformation, but who themselves proved to be heretics spouting heresies worse than anything Rome had ever taught. Calvin was constantly summoned to defend the truth of God’s Word against heretics. The worst of them all...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction   Calvin and Servetus—what a contrast! The most abused men of the sixteenth century, and yet direct antipodes of each other in spirit, doctrine, and aim: the reformer and the deformer; the champion of orthodoxy and the arch heretic; the master architect of construction and the master architect of ruin, brought together in deadly conflict for rule or ruin. Both were men of brilliant genius and learning; both deadly foes of the Roman Antichrist; both enthusiasts for restoration of primitive Christianity, but with...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction   Because of Calvin’s prominence in the work of the Reformation and because of his influence throughout the continent of Europe, no single reformer was attacked so fiercely by innumerable opponents as the reformer of Geneva. And, although many doctrines of the reformers came under the furious attacks of enemies of the Reformation, and although many doctrines taught by Calvin himself were opposed by heretics of every sort, no single doctrine was more bitterly hated than Calvin’s teaching of sovereign predestination, including both...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction We devoted the last several articles to examinations of heresies which Luther faced in the course of his reformatory work in Germany. With this article we turn to Calvin’s struggle against heretics of different kinds. Calvin was subject to countless attacks in the course of his work in Geneva and Strasburg, and in his defending of the faith he became a formidable polemicist. Because of Calvin’s influence throughout Europe and because the Reformation knew no more able defender of the faith, Calvin was...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction Melanchthon was Luther’s co-reformer. They worked together during the violent years of the early Reformation. They respected each other, loved each other, labored together in harmony, and complemented each other. It is fair to say that each needed the other, and that the Reformation would not have been what it was without the one or the other. Schaff defines their relationship and how they complemented each other in eloquent terms. [Luther] differed from Me-lanchthon as the wild mountain torrent differs from the quiet...

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Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Previous article in this series: April 1, 2005, p. 295.   Introduction   René Descartes was born and educated in France, but he lived in the Netherlands for twenty years. He was a brilliant mathematician and philosopher, generally considered to be the father of modern philosophy. His ideas were so novel that he was cordially hated by his own church—particularly by the Jesuits, who had trained him in his early years, but also by the Calvinists in the Netherlands, who rightly, saw in his...

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