All Articles For Marking the Bulwarks of Zion

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction In the last article, when we began to discuss Arius and the heresy he attempted to introduce into the church, we brought the story up to the Council of Nicea. You will remember that Arianism was a denial of the divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ. Arius claimed that, although Christ was in a certain sense divine and existed before the worlds were formed, yet He was created and, as he said, “there was a time when he was not.” The issue, while concentrating...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction From the beginning of the New Testament church, God’s people have been troubled by heretics. Paul warned the elders in Ephesus that grievous wolves would enter the church (Acts 20:29); he warned Timothy of corrupt men with reprobate minds who resist the truth (II Tim. 3:8); and Christ Himself warned the church at Pergamos of the wrong of keeping in the church those who held the doctrine of Balaam and of the Nicolaitans (Rev. 2:14, 15). The constant presence of heretics and the struggles...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction There was a heresy in the early church which was so serious, so deadly, and yet so attractive that the church was engaged in a life or death struggle to overcome it. That heresy was known as Gnosticism. It was a heresy which had many variations and was taught by many different heretics in the church. It was more like a movement than a departure from the truth on one specific point. It never resulted in a split of any significance in the church,...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction Solomon told us in the book of Ecclesiastes that there is nothing new under the sun. How often has not modern history proved that to be true. It is so in the world; it is so in the church. The charismatic movement is of recent origin, and is a phenomenon of the late twentieth century. And yet it is as old as the history of the New Testament church. Precisely the evils of modern-day Pentecostalism were found in the Montanist movement of the third...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction The ways of God are always perfect and wise. Sometimes we are given a glimpse of this perfection and wisdom; sometimes, not. So it is in the development of the truth of Scripture from the time of Pentecost. As the truth developed under the guidance of the Holy Spirit of Christ, we are sometimes given a peek at the astounding perfection of God’s ways. So it is in the development of the doctrine of the Trinity. The perfect wisdom of God is revealed in the...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction After a long and bitter struggle in the early Christian church over the heresy of Arianism, the truth of the absolute divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ had been established. This truth had been established and incorporated into a creed of the church by the Council of Nicea which met, under the auspices of the emperor Constantine the Great, in the year 325. The doctrine had been reaffirmed by the Council of Constantinople in the year 381. From that time it has been confessed...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Apollinaris the Heretic Apollinaris was not, I think, a heretic when first he began to propound his views. A heretic is one who teaches doctrines contrary to those which have been officially established by the church as the truth of Scripture. This may sound somewhat strange, but it must be remembered that it has often happened in the hard work of developing the truth that one of the church’s theologians, in struggling with a difficult theological or exegetical problem, came up with a “solution” to...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction In the last article we left Nestorius in the high office of patriarch of Constantinople. He thought it his business, from the very beginning of his rule, to root out heresy in whatever form it would take; and he was utterly ruthless in his efforts. That is, he was totally impatient with any heresy except the one against which Augustine, bishop of Hippo, was fighting, the heresy of Pelagianism. He gave comfort and support to two men who had been condemned in Western North...

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Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction With the adoption of the Creed of Chalcedon the Trinitarian and Christological controversies were, to all intents and purposes, brought to an end. Many different controversies continued to perplex the church, especially in the East; but they were vain and useless, mostly due to philosophical speculations of men who were out to promote their own private agendas more than to learn the truth of Christ. Chalcedon established for the church of the new dispensation the doctrine of the person and natures of Christ. The...

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