All Articles For Marking the Bulwarks of Zion

Results 11 to 20 of 81

Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction The most important institution in the Middle Ages, roughly the time from the death of Augustine to the Protestant Reformation (430-1517), was the Roman Catholic papacy. It dominated all the history of the Western Mediterranean world and Europe, and its influence was inescapable in the Eastern church until the great schism between east and west in 1054. The papacy determined, more than any other institution, political, economic, and ecclesiastical life during this millennium. But the man who, more than any other, shaped the medieval...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. The Synod of Dordt It is not our purpose to give a history of the Synod of Dordt in this article, but we do wish to sum up the work of the synod, particularly its composition and adoption of the Canons, and the significance of this synod for the history of the Reformed faith. Over the years a debate has been carried on between defenders of the Westminster Confessions and people loyal to Dordt over the question of whether the Synod of Dordt or...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction Although I have used the name Berengar in the title of this article, there are two reasons why this choice of names might be misleading. The first reason is that Berengar was not by any means the only one to enter the debate over the doctrine of transubstantiation. In fact, in this article we will be talking about two others: Paschasius Radbertus and Ratramnus. Both are important names in the debate. The second reason why the use of his name in the title is...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction During the Middle Ages two controversies were carried on over the doctrine of Christ’s presence in the bread and wine of the Lord’s Supper before the view of transubstantiation was finally adopted. One controversy occurred in the ninth century; the other in the eleventh. The controversy in the ninth century was between Radbertus and Ratramnus, both monks in the monastery in Corbie, France. Radbertus taught that the bread and wine were literally changed into the body and blood of Christ, while Ratramnus taught that...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction The Marrow Controversy, which troubled the Presbyterian Church of Scotland in the early part of the eighteenth century, had its roots in earlier history in the British Isles. Especially it had its origins in the struggle that went on in England between a strong Calvinism and a lurking Arminianism and Amyraldianism. The confessions did little or nothing to stop the debate. The Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England were weak on the doctrine of eternal predestination, and efforts to add to them...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction Although the Auchterarder Creed was the immediate occasion for the Marrow Controversy, the controversy itself involved the publication of Edward Fisher’s book, The Marrow of Modern Divinity. While the book had been published almost eighty years before the controversy, it had passed into oblivion until it was reprinted by James Hog, one of the Marrow Men. When the book was officially treated by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, it had been condemned for various errors that were contained in...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction The doctrinal issues in the Marrow Controversy are still issues in the church today. They revolved around the question of the preaching of the gospel and the extent of the atonement of Christ. The Marrow Men wanted an offer of the gospel to all upon condition of faith and based on a universal atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The Marrow Men were Arminian, and they corrupted the gospel of grace. The concern of the Marrow Men was rooted in what they perceived as...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor emeritus of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. * In the July 2004 issue, p. 427, Wesley’s birthdate was incorrectly given as 1723. The correct date is 1703. Introduction John Wesley was born in the early part of the eighteenth century.* He was born and baptized in the Church of England or Anglican Church, in which his father was a rector in the parish of Epworth. His life was a struggle to attain holiness, but the quest of holiness led him into paths of mysticism. While many different influences turned him towards...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction Throughout the history of the church of our Lord Jesus Christ, heretics have been present to trouble the church, attempt to lead her astray, and attempt to destroy the church by robbing her of her dearest treasure and her most important reason for existence. The lives and teachings of these heretics are so closely interwoven in the life of the church that it is impossible to know anything about the church without knowing something of the heretics that periodically appeared and the false doctrines...

Continue reading

Prof. Hanko is professor of Church History and New Testament in the Protestant Reformed Seminary. Introduction “I believe … in one Lord Jesus Christ … begotten of the Father before all worlds, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father….” So read the lofty cadences of the very first creed adopted by the church of our Lord Jesus Christ: the Nicene Creed. It sounds so familiar to us; yet it was born out of fierce and bitter struggle which nearly tore the church to pieces. Our readers will recall that...

Continue reading